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Surface Characterization Conference

5-6 March 2018
Danish Technological Institute
Gregersensvej 1
2630 Taastrup

The Surface Characterization conference aims to give companies and researchers a thorough insight into the vast number of surface investigation possibilities. The focus of the conference is on available and useful techniques as well as future possibilities.

The conference aims to give you an overview of your options, when addressing a surface related challenge in your product development, quality control, failure analysis, etc. Which methods are available, when and how can they be used? What are the advantages, downsides, and pitfalls?

In addition to the talks, the programme allows for great networking opportunities. In the exhibition area, participants can meet the suppliers of analytical instruments and discuss their own samples and characterization challenges.

The sessions include surface topography, chemical analysis, hardness and mechanical properties, corrosion measurements, optical and electron microscopy, and table top SEM systems.

More than 100 participants from Danish companies and research institutes took part in the conference in 2016, and with a lot of new topics on the programme, we look forward to seeing old and new faces alike.

5 March 2018

09:30 - 10:00
Registration and Breakfast
10:00 - 10:05
Welcome and Introduction
Introduction to the importance of surface characterization
Katja Feige, Group leader, Fraunhofer

No one likes to talk about it but it is appearing – defects in electroplated components. There are reams of defect pictures and even more causes. The analysis of the failure, especially the metallographic analysis, is an important step for root cause identification and troubleshooting. It has to be clarified what came first - the hen or the egg? The talk will give an insight into the practical failure analysis and show how important the knowledge about the electroplating process chain is.

Katja Feige is leader of the group Galvanic Processes and Materials since 2009 in the Department Electroplating of the Fraunhofer IPA and has worked there since 2005. She has studied material siences at the TU Illmenau. The focus of her work is the process development and the failure analysis of electroplated components.
Advances in technical cleanliness evaluation with microscope systems
Jedrzej Schmeidel, Application Specialist, Zeiss

Analysis of product cleanliness (particle analysis, technical cleanliness) in Quality Control is essential to the production process in automotive and many other industries. This analysis aims for detection of particulate contamination on relevant component surfaces, generated by the manufacturing process and production environment. The contamination poses a significant risk that a function of a system or component could be damaged by particulate contamination. As this analysis is being applied in more areas, the standardization expectation also increase. New standard VDA 19.1 introduces improvements in repeatability, comparability as well as usability of the systems, trying to overcome the bottlenecks of previous standards.

Dr. Jedrzej Schmeidel holds a PhD in Physics, Atmoci and Molecular structures division from Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany. At Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH he is Application Specialist.
Non-contact optical profilometry: topography, roughness and layer thickness
Jedrzej Schmeidel, Application Specialist, Zeiss

The profilometers provide information about surface characteristics and form. By applying the optical measurement method, such as confocal microscopy, the tip-surface contact can be excluded, which is a significant improvement in some application areas like foam, rubber or soft plastics and foils. Furthermore, as result of a confocal scan a reconstruction of the surface is obtained allowing for advanced surface evaluation. Such systems can measure the surface reconstruction, but also look inside of transparent materials, to search for the defects or measure transparent layers. This talk will present the technology and examples of application of confocal measurement methods for topography, roughness and transparent layers evaluation.

Dr. Jedrzej Schmeidel holds a PhD in Physics, Atomic and Molecular structures division from Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany. At Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH he is Application Specialist.
The benefits of using combined optical metrology techniques to improve speed and accuracy of surface characterization
Albert Sánchez, Product Specialist, Sensofar / ST Instruments

Advantages in combining different optical metrology techniques applied to surface metrology. Sensofar's optical profiler is based on 4 different technologies; confocal, interferometry, focus variation and spectroscopic reflectometer technique. The variety of having these techniques combined in the same profiler makes this instrument flexible and capable of measuring a broad range of applications, from very smooth to high rough surfaces. The different techniques will be explained and compared in order to understand which technique need to be used depending on the surface.

Albert Sanchez holds a MSc in Mechanical Engineering and a MSc in Photonics from the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain). At Sensofar Tech S.L he is a Product Specialist.
Affordable optical 3D microscopy
Steen Ørsted, founder and co-owner, Deltapix

Until recently 3D analysis of surfaces has been dependent on expensive scanning microscopes of different kind. With the introduction of variable focus microscopy, 3D surface analysis has become fast, affordable and available in more laboratories. Based on DeltaPix’ new digital 3D microscope, M12ZS, this presentation will show some of the jobs which can now be done fast and easy like: Height / depth measurement of long elongated structures like cracks and transitions between different surface treatment, measurement of ISO 25178 parameters, statistical analysis and much more.

Steen Ørsted holds a M.Sc.E.E. from Aalborg University and is the founder and co-owner of DeltaPix since 2011.
Surface roughness measured by different instrument - how can it be best used?
Jørgen Garnæs, Senior Staff Scientist, Danish Fundamental Metrology A/S

Portable roughness testers and sometime more expensive contact profilometers are used on a daily basis in many production companies to measure the surface roughness as an indication of quality. However, over the last years’ optical microscopy such as confocal and focus variation has been added as acceptable methods and specialized 3D parameters which describe the surface functionality more quantitative has been developed. Recently also fast optical non-imaging methods has been developed suitable for directly measuring surface roughness during production. The presentation will assess these new trends and discuss why different measurement methods can give different results and include examples of reliable measurements of injection molds and the leading etch of wind turbine blades.

Jørgen Garnæs is senior staff scientist at DFM and area coordinator for nano- and micrometer scale characterization of surfaces and has co-authored more than 70 scientific papers.
Per Møller
Imaging of material properties of the very surface - nanoindentation by atomic force
Jørgen Garnæs, Senior Staff Scientist, Danish Fundamental Metrology A/S

An atomic force microscope trace the nanoscale contour of the surface by a very sharp tip with a nondestructive force (AFM). However, AFM can also be used to conduct nanoindentation studies with nanometer scale depth, and nanonewton force resolution. The advantage of this method is that AFM nanoindentation can gives reliable measurements of the material properties of the very surface, of thin coatings (<< 1 µm) and e.g. nanoparticles (<< 1 µm) and fibers of metals, polymers and even softer materials. The AFM indentation is complementary to conventional hardness measurements which assess mostly the bulk properties. Load-displacement curves can be recorded from many positions quickly to form an image of the mechanical properties of the surface to assess e.g. phase separation of polymers. Examples of measurements on thin coatings and nanoparticles will be given and the possibility of changing the strength of a material will be discussed. The relation between the conventional rather empirical hardness parameters such as the Vickers hardness (HV) and the fundamental property of the material such as elasticity and yield strength - which can potentially be deduced from AFM indentations - will be discussed.

Jørgen Garnæs is senior staff scientist at DFM and area coordinator for nano- and micrometer scale characterization of surfaces and has co-authored more than 70 scientific papers.
Instrumented nanoindentation
Nicholas Randall, Lead Scientist & Business Development, Anton Paar

Instrumented indentation (referred to as nanoindentation at low loads and low depths) has now become established for the single point characterization of hardness and elastic modulus of both bulk and coated materials. This makes it a powerful technique for measuring the mechanical properties of homogeneous materials. However, many composite materials comprise material phases that cannot be examined in bulk form ex-situ (e.g., carbides in a ferrous matrix, calcium silicate hydrates in cements, etc.). This talk will focus on the basics of instrumented nanoindentation as well as new developments in the way that nanoindentation can be used as a two-dimensional mapping tool for examining the properties of constituent phases independently of each other

Nicholas Randall has a PhD combining nanoindentation with AFM (1997) and 25 years experience in instrumentation for surface mechanical properties testing. He is currently Lead Scientist with Anton Paar TriTec (Switzerland).
Tribology testing of surfaces
Nicholas Randall, Lead Scientist & Business Development, Anton Paar

One of the common challenges with testing the tribological properties of surfaces in relative motion is the difficulty in simulating real in-service conditions and possibly being able to accelerate them in order to assess how a surface treatment or lubricant might improve the lifetime of the device. This talk will describe the basics of tribological testing, including common experimental setups and the importance of key parameters such as applied load, sliding speed, contact geometry and environmental conditions. The measurement of friction coefficient and wear rate will also be covered, together with a range of industrial examples which illustrate various modern tribological problems and how they can be solved by systematic and reproducible testing at a laboratory scale.

Nicholas Randall has a PhD combining nanoindentation with AFM (1997) and 25 years experience in instrumentation for surface mechanical properties testing. He is currently Lead Scientist with Anton Paar TriTec (Switzerland).
18:00 - 21:00

Conference dinner
6 March 2018
Surface analysis with high resolution electron and ion beams
Peter Gnauck, Business Development Manager, Zeiss

In the last decades, electron microscopy has become a standard evaluation technique in the field of semiconductor technology, materials science as well as life science. The capability of modern electron microscopes to extend the resolution limit to sub nanometer resolution makes them a very powerful tool to investigate the nanostructure on various samples. By adding a focused ion beam system to the electron microscope, it is possible to remove material and to open up the third dimension for sample analysis.
A recent development in the Helium Ion Microscope makes use of a He or Ne ion beam instead of electrons for imaging. Due to the different particle - sample interaction the lateral resolution and the surface sensitivity of the analysis can be significantly improved. Furthermore it is possible to use this microscope to do high resolution SIMS at the sub 20nm resolution level.
The presentation will cover the technology background and operating principle of modern electron microscopes, ion microscopes as well as state of the art applications for scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam systems.

Peter Gnauck is Senior Manager of Business Development at Carl Zeiss since 2006. He holds a PhD in physics from the University of Tuebingen, Germany.
Small tabletop SEM for fast characterisation of materials
Sasha Vuckovic, Sales and Application Specialist, Hitachi High-Technologies

Nowadays small SEM’s are more and more used both in industries and universities for material characterisation or for imaging of different kind of materials. The Tabletop Microscopes are designed for researchers who want to break through the limits of the light microscopy and close up to sophisticated magnifications of up to 100.000x. They are possible to equip with EDS that easily do fast qualitative and quantitative analysis, elemental mapping, linescans of different kind of materials.

Sascha Vuckovic is responsible for sales and applications within the electron microscopy, microanalysis and surface analysis techniques in the Nordic region.
Quantitative characterization of nanostructured materials using TKD in SEM
Laurie Palasse, Senior Application Scientist (EBSD), Bruker Nano GmbH

Quantitative characterization of nanostructured materials requires high spatial resolution orientation mapping at large-scale. In this aim, Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD) in SEM was developed as a technique capable of delivering similar results as EBSD but with a spatial resolution improved by up to one order of magnitude and a much larger field of view than with TEM. TKD analysis is conducted on electron transparent sample (FIB lamella, nanoparticles, TEM foil) using EBSD hardware and software. We will demonstrate that statistical data can be obtained by conducting large-area TKD orientation mapping at high speed thanks to an optimised geometry that improves both stability, measurement speed and spatial resolution.

Laurie Palasse is Senior Application Scientist (EBSD) at Bruker Nano. She holds a PhD in Structural Geology and Petrophysics from Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
Basic physical principles for micro XRF analysis
Max Bügler, Applications Specialist Micro-XRF, Bruker Nano GmbH

This introduction into the world of Micro XRF gives insights to the principles of the technique. Beginning with the source for X-rays followed by sample interaction and finally detection the limits and possibilities of the main usage of this technique, non-destructive elemental distribution and layer/bulk composition on smallest spots, will be explained. In addition, the main differences between typical Micro XRF benchtop devices versus XRF analysis by using electron microscopes or conventional XRF is shown.

Max Bügler obtained his PhD in Physics at the Technical University of Berlin (TUB) in 2013 where his research focused on synthesis as well as optical and structural properties of nitride semiconductors. He joined Bruker as an Applications Specialist for µXRF 3 years ago.
The field of application for micro XRF analysis
Esa Nummi, Director Product Management, Bruker Nano GmbH

Although using the same technique, different instrument of micro xrf analysis offers different benefits in specific and also in general Applications. Even today new fields will be explored for this kind of technique based on the ratio of benefits to analysis depth. The range of these interesting possibilities will be shown on real samples with background explanations and comparison of some Bruker Nano GmbH Micro XRF devices such as M4 Tornado, M1 Mistral and S1 Titan.

Esa Nummi holds a Master of Science in Chemical Engineering from the Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland and has extensive experience with various laboratory, on-line and portable analytical methods.
3D x-ray imaging at DTU: examples of micro CT x-ray tomography
Carsten Gundlach, Senior Research Engineer, DTU

X-ray micro tomography a technique for studying structural information both in the bulk and at the surface layers of different materials. At the 3D Imaging center at DTU we have a couple of X-ray micro tomography systems which is used in a wide range of research projects. The 3D Imaging center is also used for collaborating with companies for material development and quality control. The presentation will contain some study cases.

Carsten Gundlach has spent several years outside of Denmark working at synchrotrons which are large scale facilities for X-ray science before joing the work of building the 3D Imaging Center at DTU.
Corrosion rate measurement using electrical resistance probes
Andreas Junker Olesen, PhD student, DTU

Surface characterization is often a matter of characterizing corrosion properties, and performance is evaluated based on before- and after- observations. A tedious process in which events causing varying corrosion rates are often missed. Using electrical resistance probes a uniform corrosion rate can be measured to sub-micron level and can be compared to e.g. temperature variations, surface potential, etc.

Andreas Junker is presently doing an industrial Ph.D. with MetriCorr and DTU on AC corrosion in which electrical resistance probe measurements play an essential role. In his previous work at DTU he has worked with anodizing PVD coatings of aluminium and decorative Cr(III) coatings for the automotive industry.
Isolating the surface from the instrument
Jacob Ketter, Instrumentation Chemist, Gamry Instruments

As newer materials and advanced research foci push the traditional boundaries for electrochemistry, the potentiostat used to control and run the experiments increasingly becomes a part of the measurement. This is particularly true in EIS, as impedance response of electronic components and cabling both tests as “valid” (e.g. with Kramers-Kronig transform) and can add to the total impedance in a way that mimics expected electrochemical impedance. Knowing when to suspect that this is the case and how to address it is critical to getting a proper understanding of the electrochemistry. Different types of testing can come up against different limits, and so there are different approaches to investigate the instrument(s) being used. The focus here will be on high impedance limits, accuracy at higher frequencies, and low current measurement limits. These limits are of importance for researchers looking at barrier coatings, oxide films, micro- and nanometer sized electrodes, and highly corrosion resistant alloys.

Jacob Ketter is Instrumentation Chemist at Gamry Instruments and holds a PhD from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Surface mapping and ID of contaminants using RAMAN/FTIR spectroscopy
Simon Frølich, Consultant, Danish Technological Institute

Raman and FTIR spectroscopy are versatile analytical techniques for chemical surface characterization. Combining the two techniques is also a strong tool for identification of foreign bodies / contaminants found in a product or in industrial process (e.g. food, medicine, consumer product, etc.). The analysis is non-destructive and often very little sample preparation is needed. Using the advanced mapping functions it is possible to acquire rapid information of e.g. product quality and homogeneity with an achievably resolution better than 1 µm (using Raman spectroscopy). Surface areas ranging from few µm2 to several cm2 can be covered. This presentation will cover some of the specific industrial cases where DTI has serviced our customers as well as discuss options and pros/cons of the techniques.

Simon Frølich is a consultant at the Danish Technological Institute and an expert in the use of advanced spectroscopic methods for the chemical characterization of surfaces. He holds a Ph.D. in nanoscience from Aarhus University.
Identification of small amounts of unknown materials
Kenneth Haugshøj, Senior Consultant, Danish Technological Institute

We will focus on how it may be necessary to use a combination of analytical techniques when unknown complex materials are to be identified. The sample could be a thin coating layer less than 100 nm in thickness, or a particle with a diameter less than 100 µm. Center for Nano Production and Micro Analysis has for a number of years investigated unknown material samples for identification for more than 200 different Danish companies. Common to a large number of these tasks is that it has often been necessary to investigate the unknown sample by several analytical techniques to achieve a useful result. In the presentation results obtained by analysis techniques such as ex. SEM / EDX, FT-IR, XPS, TOF-SIMS and XRD are discussed.

Kenneth Haugshøj holds a MSc in chemistry from Copenhagen University. He has worked at the Danish Technological Institute since 1995 and has, among other things, worked with chemical characterization of unknown materials and surfaces.
15:50 - 16:00
Closing remarks
Registration fee
Members of ATV-SEMAPP or other promoting organizations: DKK 3,800
Non-members: DKK 4,500
Early bird discount of DKK 500 when registering before 9 February
Ph.D. students at ATV-SEMAPP member institutions: DKK 1,900
B.Sc. and M.Sc. student members: DKK 975 (student membership is free of charge).

All prices are excluded of Danish VAT.

The fee includes talks, breakfast, lunch, coffee breaks and conference dinner.

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Cancellations received before 9 February 2018 are fully refunded. No refund for cancellations received on 9 February or later, nor for being unable to attend on the day.

Substitutions are accepted at any time.

Conference venue
Danish Technological Institute
Gregersensvej 1
2630 Taastrup

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