Fouling Mechanisms and Antifouling Technology

3 March 2020

Alfa Laval
Rudeboksvägen 1
SE-226 55 Lund

Fouling issues can constitute a huge technical and economical challenge in many industries. The seminar takes a closer look at how fouling and scaling affect different industries, and how new and current technologies are used to address the issue. The focus will be on surface technologies and treatments, and participants can find inspiration from other industries and research institutes.

09:00-09:30 Registration and breakfast
09:30-09:40 Welcome
Structural and compositional changes during dairy fouling formation and removal

Tommy Nylander, Professor, Lund University, Sweden

The formation of fouling during dairy processing as well as most other food products leads in most cases cases to the formation of an intertwined mineral- and proteinbased networks. The process is kinetically controlled and strongly dependent process conditions. The deposition process is a balance between the attachment of the different components to the surface, their surfaces interactions and bulk interactions. In fact chemical interactions and aggregation in bulk can make the component less sticky. Any cleaning process must take into account that in order to remove fouling  you need to remove both the protein and mineral network.

Prof. Nylander did his under graduate studies in Chemical Engineering with specialization in Food Technology at Lund University. He completed his PhD in Biophysical Technology at Lund University under the supervision of Prof. Kåre Larsson in 1987 with a thesis entitled “Proteins at the metal water interface- adsorption and solution behaviour”. In 1990 he did a postdoc at Australian National University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Canberra, Australia with Prof. Barry Ninham. In 2000 he was appointed senior lecturer in Physical Chemistry, Lund University and in 2007 he was promoted to full professor at the same department. The main theme of Prof. Nylander scientific activity has been to relate interfacial behaviour of surface-active molecule to their solution behaviour. He has published 260 scientific articles and book chapters within his research area. Nylander has a large experience on application research and on international collaboration both with academia and industry.
Fouling & cleaning in Gasketed plate heat exchangers

Olga Santos, Material Specialist, Alfa Laval, Sweden

This talk will give an overview of the different fouling types that heat exchangers are subjected to. It will start by describing fouling and its consequences followed by a description of the different types of fouling, in which application they are encountered, how to prevent it and what factors play a role in each of the different types. The last part of the talk will deal with different strategies for heat exchanger cleaning. Alfa Laval has for the past years been working with different coatings for fouling reduction in heat exchangers and some results in scaling applications will be briefly presented.

Olga Santos holds a PhD in Food Engineering on coated stainless steel surfaces to reduce fouling in the dairy industry from Lund University. She has completed several Postdoc projects from Lund University (group of physical chemistry) and Malmö University (biofilms group). Since 2011 she has been at Materials and Chemistry Center, Alfa Laval Lund, as a Material Specialist working with fouling, cleaning and coatings for plate heat exchangers.
10:40-11:10 Coffee break
Fouling Control coatings for ship hulls

Søren Kiil, Associate Professor, DTU Chemical Engineering

In this presentation, the various coating types available (commercially and in research) for combatting biofouling on ship hulls and other underwater structures are reviewed. The working mechanisms of the coatings and the advantages and disadvantages of the product types are discussed. Finally, we take a look at the test methods involved in research and development, including field studies.

Søren Kiil is an Associate Professor in the Hempel Foundation Coatings Science and Technology (CoaST) group at DTU Chemical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. He has worked on coatings for the heavy duty industry, including formulation, practical test methods and mathematical modelling, for more than 20 years.
Importance of using hygienic design in the equipment for food production

Annette Baltzer Larsen, Consultant, Force Technology

Using hygienic design as much as possible in the construction of the equipment to the food industry is important. It makes it possible to have an efficient and fast cleaning. We will talk about the different elements in the concept of hygienic design – elements like used materials, joints, drainability etc. The efficiency of cleaning procedures can be monitored by analyzing the rinse water. We will discuss some pitfalls with this method, as it is important that the rinse water is coming everywhere in the closed equipment (pipes, valves, tanks etc.). Otherwise it is not possible to use the rinse water as an indicator for the cleanability of the equipment. Results from a case study using rinse water for evaluating the efficiency of the cleaning is showed.

Annette Baltzer Larsen is dairy engineer and have worked with the topics: hygienic design, optimized cleaning, cleaning validation, biofilm, thermoduric bacteria, food safety and food quality the last 22 years. The last 12 years at FORCE Technology.
12:10-13:20 Lunch
Experience from Anti Fouling Coating in Plate Heat Exchangers

Clemens Wictor, Project Manager R&D Technology Development, Alfa Laval, Sweden

Fouling of heat exchangers in the chemical industry, oil & gas industry, power plants, among others, results in significant loss of performance. This leads to production stops for cleaning, increasing operating costs. Alfa Laval has been working on mitigating fouling by altering the properties of the metal surface with coatings. The coating has resulted in a significant improvement of the GPHE performance as well as less downtime for cleaning. Savings in energy, water, cleaning chemicals etc all contributes to a more sustainable and environmentally friendly operation.

Clemens Wictor holds a B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering from Halmstad University. Started working at Alfa Laval 2004 as Design & Calculation Engineer and Since 2008 has been working in R&D Technology Development, Alfa Laval Lund, as a Project Manager & Design Engineer on projects to improve designs and evaluate new technologies, including anti fouling coatings, for plate heat exchangers.
Possible solutions to the problem of fouling and scaling in heat exchangers

Annemette Hindhede Jensen, CEO, Siox Aps

In SiOx we are producing anti-fouling coatings which eliminate the attachment of unwanted species on the surfaces of heat exchangers. Such coatings enable the heat exchangers to work at highest possible efficiency at all times.

As a small company we are focusing on problem solving, by providing a technical solution to a problem recognized by many sectors.

This presentation guides you through the path taken by a start-up company, from the development of new products to the market introduction.

Annemette Hindhede Jensen,
MSc. Chemistry, PhD Electrochemistry and Materials Science
Modifies the properties of materials, for them to provide us with solutions to our biggest problems.
14:20-14:50 Coffee break
A result of fouling: Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC)

Matthias Graff, Senior Consultant, Danfoss A/S

Fouling bears several disadvantages for technical systems. One of the most serious is microbial influenced corrosion, commonly known as MIC.

The presentation will give with an overview over micro-organisms being able to cause corrosion, the term “biofilm” will be explained as well as the limitations for microbial life, i.e. formation of biofilm. Last, but not at all least, several MIC case studies will be presented.

After the presentation, participants will be aware of the corrosion risk connected with fouling and MIC; they will be able to identify possible risks in their own systems.

Matthias Graff has studied microbiology, biochemistry and geology. He has worked at the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany, where he performed applied research in geomicrobiology and corrosion research. Later, he owned a private expert consultancy before he joined Danfoss A/S Technology Centre in October 2007 as Senior Consultant. Matthias is acting worldwide as officially appointed and certified expert.
15:20-15:30 Closing remarks
15:30-16:15 Tour of Alfa Laval